We investigate the emergence and impact of different types of sanctioning to deter non-cooperative behaviour in climate agreements. We show that a bottom-up approach, in which parties create local institutions that punish free-riders, promotes the emergence of widespread cooperation, mostly when risk perception is low, as it is at present. Global institutions provide, at best, marginal improvements regarding overall cooperation. Our results clearly suggest that a polycentric approach involving multiple institutions is more effective than that associated with a single, global one."
Recommended citation: Vítor V. Vasconcelos, Francisco C. Santos, and Jorge M. Pacheco. “A bottom-up institutional approach to cooperative governance of risky commons” Nature Climate Change (2013) 3 9 p797-801